Saturday, 26 July 2014

Net Neutrality and the Open Internet

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At its simplest, network neutrality is the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally. According to Columbia Law School professor Tim Wu: "Network neutrality is best defined as a network design principle. The idea is that a maximally useful public information network aspires to treat all content, sites, and platforms equally".

The idea of an open internet is the idea that the full resources of the internet and means to operate on it are easily accessible to all individuals and companies. This often includes ideas such as net neutrality, open standards, transparency, lack of internet censorship, and low barriers to entry. The concept of the open internet is sometimes expressed as an expectation of decentralized technological power, and is seen by some as closely related to open-source software.


Common carrier



In common law countries, common carrier is a legal classification for a person or company which transports goods and is legally prohibited from discriminating or refusing service based on the customer or nature of the goods. The common carrier framework is often used to classify public utilities, such as electricity or water, and public transport. In the United States, there has been intense debate between some advocates of net neutrality, who believe internet providers should be legally designated common carriers, and some internet service providers, who believe the common carrier designation would be a heavy regulatory burden.


Dumb pipe



The concept of a "dumb network" made up of "dumb pipes", has been around since at least the early 1990s. The idea of a dumb network is that the endpoints of a network are generally where the intelligence lies, and that the network itself generally leaves the management and operation of communication to the end users.


End-to-end principle



The end-to-end principle is a principle of network design, first laid out explicitly in the 1981 conference paper End-to-end arguments in system design by Jerome H. Saltzer, David P. Reed, and David D. Clark. The principle states that, whenever possible, communications protocol operations should be defined to occur at the end-points of a communications system, or as close as possible to the resource being controlled. According to the end-to-end principle, protocol features are only justified in the lower layers of a system if they are a performance optimization, hence, TCP retransmission for reliability is still justified, but efforts to improve TCP reliability should stop after peak performance has been reached.


They argued that reliable systems tend to require end-to-end processing to operate correctly, in addition to any processing in the intermediate system. They pointed out that most features in the lowest level of a communications system have costs for all higher-layer clients, even if those clients do not need the features, and are redundant if the clients have to re-implement the features on an end-to-end basis. This leads to the model of a "dumb, minimal network" with smart terminals, a completely different model from the previous paradigm of the smart network with dumb terminals.


Because the end-to-end principle is one of the central design principles of the Internet, and because the practical means for implementing data discrimination violate the end-to-end principle, the principle often enters discussions about net neutrality. The end-to-end principle is closely related, and sometimes seen as a direct precursor to the principle of net neutrality.


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Sunday, 22 June 2014

Bat Pipistrelle

Common (pipistrelle) Bat



The common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) is a small pipistrelle bat whose very large range extends across most of Europe, North Africa, southwestern Asia, and possibly into Korea. It is one of the most common bat species in the British Isles.








The common pipistrelle is the smallest bat found in Europe. It is 3.5–5.2 cm (1.4–2.0 in) long along the head-and-body, with the tail adding 2.3–3.6 cm (0.91–1.42 in). The body mass can range from 3.5 to 8.5 g (0.12 to 0.30 oz), with the wingspan ranging from 18 to 25 cm (7.1 to 9.8 in). Its brown fur is variable in tone. It is common in woodland and farmland but is also found in towns, where the females roost in lofts and buildings when rearing young.




In 1999, the common pipistrelle was split into two species on the basis of different-frequency echolocation calls. The common pipistrelle uses a call of 45 kHz, while the soprano pipistrelle echolocates at 55 kHz. Since the two species were distinguished, a number of other differences, in appearance, habitat and food, have also been discovered.




Read More Here



Thursday, 19 December 2013

clean the crap from your hard drive

Use A Free Software Program To Do The Job

Optimization and cleaning

Are you running low on disk space? Is your Windows PC feeling a bit slow? Use CCleaner to optimize your computer and clean up any unused resources for a faster, cleaner PC. CCleaner is an all-in-one tool for cleaning your PC including:
  • Recycle Bin
  • Recent Documents
  • Temporary Files
  • Log Files
  • Clipboard
  • DNS Cache
  • Error Reporting
  • Memory Dumps
  • Jump Lists

Why should I clean my PC?

As you use your Windows PC, files and settings are stored in directories. This can cause your computer to become slow, or to run low on available disk space. Cleaning your PC regularly can help it run quickly, and can free up disk space.

How to clean my PC?

CCleaner is the number one PC cleaning software and is trusted by thousands of people and companies worldwide. The simple interface allows you to analyze and clean your Windows PC with ease.

"Cleaning your PC regularly using CCleaner can help it run quickly, and can free up disk space"
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Stop programs from running on start-up that you don't need.


You can disable programs from running when you start up your PC which will "speed it up". 





Features

CCleaner is our system optimization, privacy and cleaning tool. It removes unused files from your system - allowing Windows to run faster and freeing up valuable hard disk space. It also cleans traces of your online activities such as your Internet history. Additionally it contains a fully featured registry cleaner. But the best part is that it's fast (normally taking less than a second to run) and contains NO Spyware or Adware!

Registry Cleaner

When you use the registry cleaner, do the back up when you get the prompt, just to be on the safe side. On a personal note, I only use this feature if I have uninstalled a program. They will always leave behind empty registry entries. If you know absolutely nothing about the registry, do some research before using it.

Backup any changes to the registry




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Wednesday, 11 December 2013

exoplanet - short update

Exoplanet Update



An exoplanet, or extrasolar planet, is a planet outside the Solar System. More than a thousand such planets have been discovered (1048 planets in 794 planetary systems including 175 multiple planetary systems as of 25 November 2013). As of 4 November 2013, the Kepler mission space telescope has detected 3,568 more candidate planets, of which about 11% may be false positives.

It is expected that there are many billions of planets in the Milky Way Galaxy (at least one planet, on average, orbiting around each star, resulting in 100–400 billion exoplanets), with many more free-floating planetary-mass bodies orbiting within the galaxy. Around 1 in 5 Sun-like stars have an "Earth-sized" planet in the habitable zone, so the nearest would be expected to be within 12 light-years distance from Earth.

As a result of related studies, astronomers have reported that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarf stars within the Milky Way Galaxy. 11 billion of these estimated planets may be orbiting Sun-like stars. The nearest known exoplanet, if confirmed, would be Alpha Centauri Bb but there is some doubt about its existence. Almost all of the planets detected so far are within our home galaxy the Milky Way; however, there have been a small number of possible detections of extragalactic planets.

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Night Sky In Naked eye

 Astronomy Coleynotes

 The naked eye is a figure of speech referring to human visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical device, such as a telescope or microscope. Vision corrected to normal acuity using corrective lenses is considered "naked". The term is often used in astronomy when referring to events that can be viewed without equipment, such as an astronomical conjunction, the passage of a comet, or a meteor shower. Sky lore and various tests demonstrate an impressive wealth of phenomena that can be seen with the unaided eye.

Naked Eye Visibility 


  The visibility of astronomical objects is strongly affected by light pollution. Even a few hundred kilometers away from a metropolitan area where the sky can appear to be very dark, it is still the residual light pollution that sets the limit on the visibility of faint objects. For most people, this is likely to be the best observing conditions within their reach. Under such "typical" dark sky conditions, the naked eye can see stars with an apparent magnitude up to +6m. Under perfect dark sky conditions where all light pollution is absent, stars as faint as +8m might be visible.


 Five planets can be recognized as planets from earth with the naked eye: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Under typical dark sky conditions Uranus (magnitude +5.8) can be seen as well with averted vision. The Sun and the Moon—the remaining noticeable naked-eye objects of the solar system—are sometimes added to make seven "planets." During daylight only the Moon and Sun are obvious naked eye objects, but in many cases Venus can be spotted in daylight and in rarer cases Jupiter.

Coleynotes


Sirius Is Seriously Bright Star


 Close to sunset and sunrise bright stars like Sirius or even Canopus can be spotted with the naked eye as long as one knows the exact position in which to look.

 Historically, the zenith of naked-eye astronomy was the work of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601). He built an extensive observatory to make precise measurements of the heavens without any instruments for magnification. In 1610, Galileo Galilei pointed a telescope towards the sky. He immediately discovered the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus, among other things.









Wednesday, 23 October 2013

Get Rid of PC Clutter

Time to Disk Cleanup?

Diskcleanup
Do your disk cleanup
Disk Cleanup (cleanmgr.exe) is a computer maintenance utility included in Microsoft Windows designed to free up disk space on a computer's hard drive.

The utility first searches and analyses the hard drive for files that are no longer of any use, and then removes the unnecessary files.

There are a number of different file categories that Disk Cleanup targets when performing the initial disk analysis:



* Compression of old files
* Temporary Internet files
* Temporary Windows files
* Downloaded program files
* Recycle Bin
* Removal of unused applications or optional Windows components
* Setup log files
* Off-line files

The above list, however, is not exhaustive. For instance, 'Temporary Remote Desktop files' and 'Temporary Sync Files' may appear only under certain computer configurations,
differences such as Windows Operating System and use of additional programs such as Remote Desktop.
The option of removing hibernation data may not be ideal for some
users as this may remove the hibernate option.

Aside from removing unnecessary files, users also have the option of compressing files that have not been accessed over a set period of time. This option provides a systematic
compression scheme. Infrequently accessed files are compressed to free up disk space while leaving the frequently used files uncompressed for faster read/write access times.

If after file compression, a user wishes to access a compressed file, the access times may be increased and vary from system to system. In addition to the categories that appear on
the Disk Cleanup tab, the More Options tab offers additional options for freeing up hard drive space through removal of optional Windows components, installed programs, and
all but the most recent System Restore point or Shadow Copy data in some versions of Microsoft Windows.


Performance


You should note that the actual amount of space gained may be only a small fraction of the amount indicated by Disk Cleanup. For example, on a tested computer Disk Cleanup
indicates that 1,284 MB will be freed, but the actual result is 325 MB which is only 25% of the space estimated.

Better software for this task is the free program, ccleaner. Much more powerful than any Windows program's. If you need to clean the gathered clutter from your PC, use the above before installing software.



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Friday, 18 October 2013

Why Open Source Is Better Free Software Than Just Free Software

Open Source Is nothing To Do With Corporate Companies

Because Open Source is non-profit making, you do not get "nagged" to buy the full version of the software every time you click on a feature that is "only allowed in the full version". It's the number one reason to use Open Source, apart from many other things.


Use Open Source Only
Use Open Source Software  Only

As Richard Stallman puts it, "Open source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement."



Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation flatly opposes the term "Open Source" being applied to what they refer to as "free software". Although it is clear that legally free software does qualify as open source, Stallman considers that the category is abusive. Critics also oppose the professed pragmatism of the Open Source Initiative, as they fear that the free software ideals of freedom and community are threatened by compromising on the FSF's idealistic standards for software freedom.

Increasingly, the consensus term "free and open source software" is used by the communities at large to describe the common ground between free software and open source software.
While the term "open source" applied originally only to the source code of software, it is now being applied to many other areas such as Open source ecology, a movement to decentralize technologies so that any human can use them. However, it is often misapplied to other areas which have different and competing principles, which overlap only partially.

A license defines the rights and obligations that a licensor grants to a licensee. Open source licenses grant licensees the right to copy, modify and redistribute source code (or content). These licenses may also impose obligations (e.g., modifications to the code that are distributed must be made available in source code form, an author attribution must be placed in a program/ documentation using that open source).
Open Source Coley Culture Image
Coley Culture - Open Source





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